Brasília, the captivating capital of Brazil, boasts a rich tapestry of cultural institutions, with a diverse array of museums that celebrate its heritage and significance. Among the city’s prominent cultural landmarks are the JK Memorial, dedicated to the visionary President Juscelino Kubitschek, the Museu de Arte de Brasília, showcasing an impressive collection of contemporary art, and The Gems Museum, a fascinating display of precious stones and minerals.
Additionally, history enthusiasts will find solace in the Museu Histórico de Brasília and the Museu do Catetinho, where they can delve into the city’s past and its foundation. The architectural wonder, Museu Nacional da República, and the Museu de Valores do Banco Central, highlighting the nation’s currency history, are equally captivating.
Notably, Brasília embraces its journalistic history with The Press Museum and emphasizes the importance of education through the Museu da Educação do Distrito Federal. Moreover, the city pays tribute to its indigenous heritage at The Memorial of the Indigenous Peoples and preserves its postal heritage at The Postal Museum.
An extraordinary tribute to architect Lúcio Costa, the Espaço Lúcio Costa, completes this cultural panorama, offering visitors a comprehensive exploration of the city’s visionary design. Together, these museums form a mosaic of artistic, historical, and cultural treasures that reflect the soul of Brasília. If you want to read about the landmarks of Brasília, here is the article.
The JK Memorial
The JK Memorial stands as a tribute to the 21st President of Brazil, Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, serving not only as a museum but also as a mausoleum and cultural center. Located in the heart of Brasília, on the central axis of the Eixo Monumental, specifically in the Civic-Administrative Zone, the memorial finds its place in the elevated Praça do Cruzeiro within the Plano Piloto.
Designed by the renowned architect Oscar Niemeyer, responsible for many iconic buildings in the city, the Memorial JK was a heartfelt request from Juscelino’s widow and former First Lady, Sarah Kubitschek. The grand structure pays homage to the late President’s life and legacy, displaying photographs, personal belongings, and even the symbolic presidential sash and attire.
Outside the memorial, the prominent statue of Juscelino, sculpted by Honório Peçanha, stands atop a pedestal, offering a unique perspective to the visitors. Niemeyer’s architectural vision for the exterior is reflected in the simple yet striking white marble block design, adorned with limited openings that create a captivating contrast against the vibrant blue skies of Brasília.
Within the memorial, Athos Bulcão’s artistry can be admired through the intricate patterns on the walls, while a mesmerizing stained-glass window, designed by artist Marianne Peretti, illuminates the mortuary chamber, casting captivating colors and reflections as the sun moves.
The Memorial JK not only houses exhibits and artifacts but also features the Auditório Márcia Kubistchek, an auditorium named in honor of Juscelino’s daughter. This space hosts a variety of cultural events, including music performances, theater plays, and lectures.
The history of the memorial, including its iconic statue, has been entwined with controversies and negotiations with the military and conservative sectors, yet it stands today as a symbol of respect and admiration for Juscelino Kubitschek’s legacy.
This grand monument, preserved as a national heritage by IPHAN, continues to welcome visitors from Tuesday to Sunday, 9 am to 6 pm, offering a deep and enriching insight into the life and accomplishments of this esteemed Brazilian leader.
Museu de Arte de Brasília
The Museu de Arte de Brasília (MAB) is a significant institution showcasing modern and contemporary art in Brasília. Although it was closed between 2007 and 2021 due to the poor condition of its building, the museum now houses a remarkable collection of 1,400 artworks, including pieces by renowned artists such as Tarsila do Amaral, Alfredo Volpi, and Sérgio Rodrigues.
The museum’s history dates back to its construction between 1960 and 1961, designed by Novacap, and was initially used for various purposes like restaurants, bars, and nightclubs.
In 1985, the Secretaria de Educação e Cultura created the museum, assembling donated works of modern and contemporary visual arts, and inaugurated it with a notable exhibition featuring artists like Tomie Ohtake and Arcangelo Ianelli.
Over the years, the museum faced challenges, including a lack of investment in building renovations, leading to its closure in 2007 based on the Ministry of Public’s recommendation. The collection was then transferred to the Museu Nacional da República.
Efforts to restore the MAB began in 2017, but due to funding issues, the restoration process faced delays. The long-awaited renovation concluded in April 2021, and the MAB reopened to the public in May of the same year, presenting exhibitions featuring Tarsila do Amaral and Orlando Brito.
The museum’s diverse collection includes works of art dating from the 1950s onwards, encompassing paintings, prints, sculptures, drawings, photographs, objects, and installations. Notable artists featured in the collection include Aldemir Martins, Lygia Pape, Roberto Burle Marx, and many others, both from Brazil and abroad.
Despite facing challenges during its closure and restoration period, the Museu de Arte de Brasília now stands as an important cultural landmark, contributing to the preservation and promotion of art and culture in the Distrito Federal.
The Gems Museum
The Gems Museum, known as “Museu das Gemas,” stands as a captivating permanent exhibition of precious stones in Brasília. The museum’s history is closely linked to the Institute of Geosciences, which dates back to 1965 when geological sciences education began at the University of Brasília. The museum currently occupies 190 m2 in the Central Institute of Sciences building.
The collection showcased over 3,000 Brazilian gemstones, encompassing both raw and faceted specimens, including diamonds in various hues, emeralds, rubies, and aquamarines. In 2010, the exhibited jewelry was estimated to be worth around 1 million Brazilian reais.
The museum’s extensive and diverse collection includes some of Brazil’s most precious gemstones, with diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and aquamarines being among the notable exhibits. Additionally, the museum showcases an extensive selection of minerals, rocks, meteorites, and fossils. These exhibits serve to exemplify the geological history, mineral diversity, and the natural heritage of Brazil.
The display of minerals is particularly impressive, featuring specimens that hold both economic significance and aesthetic appeal. Various classes of minerals are showcased, such as native elements, sulfides, oxides, halides, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, and silicates. These minerals, with their unique properties, structure, and chemical composition, provide insight into the Earth’s geology and geological processes.
The Gems Museum once boasted an awe-inspiring example of the world’s oldest rock, a tonalite gneiss from the Acasta River region in Canada, with an astounding age of 3.962 billion years. Additionally, the museum was home to an impressive meteorite composed predominantly of iron and nickel, weighing 279 kilograms.
Overall, the Gems Museum offered visitors an immersive and educational experience, presenting a captivating showcase of Brazil’s geological treasures, its rich mineral resources, and the intrinsic connection between geology, history, and culture.
While the museum may have evolved into the Institute of Geosciences at the University of Brasília, its legacy continues to inspire awe and appreciation for the natural wonders found within Brazil’s geological landscape.
Museu Histórico de Brasília
The Museu Histórico de Brasília, also known as Museu da Cidade, holds the distinction of being the oldest museum in the capital city. It was inaugurated on the same historic day when Brasília officially became the Federal Capital of Brazil, symbolizing the transfer from Rio de Janeiro.
Designed by Oscar Niemeyer and part of the Centro Cultural Três Poderes (CC3P) on the square of the same name, the museum aims to preserve the history of Brasília’s construction.
The striking architectural design of the museum, along with its location within the Praça dos Três Poderes, harmoniously complements the surrounding buildings, including the Palácio do Planalto, the Panteão da Pátria, and the Supremo Tribunal Federal. The interior of the museum contains 16 inscribed texts providing insights into the history of Brazil’s capital city.
Operated by the Secretaria de Estado de Cultura do Distrito Federal, the museum is open from Tuesday to Sunday, including holidays, from 9 am to 6 pm. It offers facilities to cater to visually impaired visitors, including tactile models.
Inaugurated in 1960, alongside the founding of Brasília, the museum was constructed with reinforced concrete, characterized by its straight and sober lines. Its walls, both inside and outside, are adorned with historical phrases engraved on white marble.
Notably, there is a sculpture of Juscelino Kubitschek’s head on the east facade, and above it, a dedication to the president from the pioneers and workers who contributed to the city’s creation.
The west facade features a chronological inscription of the capital’s interiorization process from 1789 to 1960, highlighting key dates. Inside, visitors can find 16 inscriptions in Braille and English, detailing significant events and historical speeches related to Brasília’s construction and inauguration.
The Museu Histórico de Brasília stands as a remarkable monument, not only commemorating the city’s foundation but also preserving its rich history for future generations. With its fascinating architecture and historical significance, the museum is a must-visit cultural destination in the heart of Brazil’s capital.
Museu do Catetinho
The Museu do Catetinho, also known as Catetinho, holds a unique historical significance as the first official residence of President Juscelino Kubitschek during the construction of the new Distrito Federal, Brasília.
Originally named “Palácio das Tábuas,” it was later renamed Catetinho by the musician Dilermando Reis, inspired by the Palácio do Catete, the former official residence of the Federal Government in Rio de Janeiro since the 19th century.
Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, the project was inaugurated on November 10, 1956, with President JK’s presence, and later placed under the care of the National Historical and Artistic Heritage Institute. Three years later, both the President and the Minister of Education, Clóvis Salgado da Gama, announced its historical landmark status.
Catetinho is located in an Area of Environmental Preservation, surrounded by preserved fauna and flora, including a gallery forest near the spring and cerrado vegetation in other areas.
Domestic animals are not allowed inside the museum premises, and it is common to find wild animals such as burrowing owls, armadillos, capuchin monkeys, hedgehogs, black howler monkeys, and others in its gardens.
Currently, the building serves as a museum and is part of the cultural facilities under the Secretaria de Cultura e Economia Criativa do Distrito Federal. It is open for visitation from Tuesday to Sunday (including holidays) from 9 am to 5 pm, while Mondays are reserved for maintenance and remain closed. Admission and internal parking are free, and guided tours can be arranged for student groups by phone.
The museum’s collection includes personal objects of Juscelino Kubitschek, such as books and clothing, as well as the guitar of composer Dilermando Reis, whose name inspired the museum’s title.
The interiors are adorned with period objects, including furniture and crockery from the Brasília Palace Hotel, vintage suitcases, oil lamps, and bottles of the now-extinct Pirassununga brandy.
Although located on the main BR-040 highway, the access to this protected museum is somewhat challenging for the local population. Nonetheless, the museum attracts visitors mainly through school excursions from various states and national and international tourists. Annually, approximately 23,000 people visit the site.
Museu Nacional da República
The Museu Nacional da República, also known as the Museu Nacional Honestino Guimarães, is a renowned Brazilian museum administered by the government of the Distrito Federal. Together with the National Library of Brasília, it forms the Complexo Cultural da República João Herculino.
Designed by the acclaimed architect Oscar Niemeyer, the museum is a striking piece of architecture. It features a minimalist design, showcasing a perfect semi-sphere and a prominent access ramp. Some observers find the building to possess a surrealistic tone, while others liken it to a spaceship.
The original design for the institution, conceived in the 1970s alongside the Teatro Nacional, proved too costly to execute. As a result, Niemeyer developed a more cost-effective project, leading to the awe-inspiring structure we see today.
The museum’s volumetric design derives from its structural form, exemplifying Niemeyer’s concept of the architectural design being a consequence of the structural system. The collaboration between architect and engineer, particularly with José Carlos Sussekind, contributed to the development of this masterpiece marked by structural boldness and technological challenges.
The semi-spherical building boasts a dome with a 25-meter radius atop a base with a 35.55-meter radius. The structure spans an area of almost 15,000 square meters, with a height of 26.25 meters and four floors.
The underground level houses two auditoriums, each with seating capacities of 85 and 700. The main floor grants access to the larger auditorium, smaller auditorium, and a gallery hosting smaller exhibitions. Two ramps lead to the upper floor, dedicated to exhibitions, featuring a vast open space of 3,203.19 square meters exclusively for showcasing various works.
Upon entering the building, visitors are captivated by the monumental ceiling height and the indirect illumination provided by a large central chandelier, reflecting off the dome’s interior. The mezzanine, suspended from the dome by tie rods, adds to the sense of grandeur, appearing to hang from the ceiling.
The Museu Nacional da República embodies Niemeyer’s vision of a contemporary space, serving as a platform for experimental exhibitions and ideas from Brazil and around the world. As part of the Conjunto Cultural da República, an initiative envisioned by Lúcio Costa in the 1950s, the museum, along with the National Library of Brasília, contributes to the cultural richness of the city.
Museu de Valores do Banco Central
The Museu de Valores do Banco Central is a Brazilian museum with a diverse collection divided into two categories: numismatic and artistic. The numismatic collection encompasses a wide range of items, including banknotes, coins, printed values, gold bars, medals, and numismatic curiosities related to money and its technological production.
The artistic collection consists of 554 museum-quality works, comprising paintings, drawings, engravings, and sculptures, primarily created by Brazilian artists associated with modernism.
The Museu de Valores do Banco Central is located in the 1st basement of the Central Bank of Brazil’s headquarters. Covering an area of about 1,300 square meters, it comprises five rooms with permanent exhibitions, each showcasing unique aspects of the monetary world.
The rooms include displays on Brazil’s money history, banknotes and coins issued by the Central Bank of Brazil, international banknotes and coins, peculiar money items, and a showcase of gold in various forms, featuring Canaã, the largest gold nugget on display worldwide and the largest ever found in Brazil, weighing 60.82 kg (with 52.33 kg of gold content), discovered in the Serra Pelada gold rush in Pará.
The museum’s collections, both numismatic and artistic, have been incorporated through different means and reasons. The numismatic collection, comprising around 135,000 Brazilian and foreign pieces, covers ancient and modern means of payment.
This section includes coins, banknotes, medals, public and private securities, historical documents, and objects reflecting the progress of money production technology, such as banknote plates, dies, and original designs.
The art collection, on the other hand, emerged primarily from bank liquidation processes in the 1970s. More than 90% of the pieces in the Museu de Valores’ Art Collection were incorporated as a result of the bankruptcy and withdrawal from the market of two financial institutions, Halles and Áurea investment banks.
Notably, the Banco Central received thirteen panels by Candido Portinari as a result of its intervention in Banco Halles de Investimentos, including the renowned panel “Descobrimento do Brasil” (Discovery of Brazil) and the twelve works from the “Cenas Brasileiras” series.
Furthermore, when Banco Áurea de Investimentos exited the financial market, the Central Bank received a substantial number of artworks from prominent Brazilian visual artists associated with modernism, showcasing the nation’s cultural heritage.
The Press Museum
The Press Museum (Museu da Imprensa), belonging to the Brazilian government and linked to the Presidential Civil House, is situated in Brasília’s Graphic Industries Sector (SIG).
Recognized as the eighth most important museum of its kind globally, it houses an impressive collection of over 600 rare historical pieces and documents. The museum was inaugurated on May 13, 1982, encompassing an area of 680 square meters.
Within the museum gardens rests the remains of Hipólito José da Costa, the patron of Brazilian journalism. He founded the “Correio Braziliense ou Armazém Literário,” the first Brazilian newspaper, in London on June 1, 1808, which circulated until December 1822.
Noteworthy exhibits in the outdoor area include the Vicente Ráo printer, responsible for printing the first issue of the Diário Oficial in Brasília in 1960, and the monotype of Joana França Stockmeyer, the first woman to work in the Brazilian civil service.
One of the museum’s highlights is the English printing machine manufactured in 1833, where the renowned writer Machado de Assis worked as a typographer apprentice from 1856 to 1858.
Additionally, the museum houses the first cliché made in Brazil, featuring the drawing of the original plan of the city then known as São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, created in copper.
Among its distinguished pieces is the Diário Oficial from May 14, 1888, containing the publication of Law No. 3.353, known as the “Lei Áurea” or the Abolition Act, which brought an end to slavery in Brazil.
The museum also hosts the annual Museu da Imprensa Contest for Drawing, Writing, Poetry, and Monographs, fostering cultural engagement and appreciation.
Museu da Educação do Distrito Federal
The Museu da Educação do Distrito Federal (MUDE) is a museum dedicated to education, situated in Brasília. It originated from the research project “Memória da Educação do Distrito Federal” carried out at the Faculty of Education of the University of Brasília (UnB) over two decades.
Presently located on the UnB’s Darcy Ribeiro University Campus, the museum houses an extensive collection of over 600 rare historical pieces and documents.
MUDE serves as an educational and cultural project, showcasing interactive exhibitions, photographs, films, videos, books, documents, and period educational objects. It fosters discussions, conducts courses and seminars, and encourages playful activities, contributing to the community’s identity formation.
It promotes educational initiatives to preserve and value the cultural heritage, strengthening the roots of the Brasília people.
The museum’s research department has produced several academic articles and books on education. MUDE’s mission is to preserve, safeguard, and disseminate the memory of education in the Distrito Federal, enhancing the identity of schools and teachers while supporting the quality and renewal of educational processes in benefit of Brasília and its education system.
The dream of educators and education enthusiasts is to establish the museum’s permanent headquarters near the original site of the Escola Júlia Kubitschek, designed by renowned architect Oscar Niemeyer. The new structure will maintain the school’s historical architectural features while adapting its interior to accommodate the museum.
The logo of the Museu da Educação do Distrito Federal draws inspiration from the architectural design of the Escola Júlia Kubitschek, a symbolic and relevant structure in Brasília’s educational history.
The Memorial of the Indigenous Peoples
The Memorial of the Indigenous Peoples (Memorial dos Povos Indígenas) is a museum, cultural center, and research institution dedicated to indigenous Brazilian culture. Located in Brasília, within the Civic-Administrative Zone of the Monumental Axis, it stands between the Memorial JK and the Praça do Buriti, facing the Legislative Chamber of the Federal District.
Conceived by anthropologists Berta Gleizer Ribeiro and Darcy Ribeiro, and designed by architect Oscar Niemeyer, the memorial’s construction was completed in 1987. Initially transformed into the Museum of Modern Art before its official opening, it remained closed for several years but resumed activities in 1999.
The Memorial’s structure is reminiscent of a modernist taba, inspired by Niemeyer’s mentor, the French architect Le Corbusier. Niemeyer introduced curved lines to the concrete, contrary to Le Corbusier’s preference for straight lines. The circular building design was inspired by the Yanomami people’s taba, featuring a continuous roofline open to the outside.
The museum comprises a circular building with a diameter of 70 meters, housing rooms opening to a large interior patio. The usable floor area is only 792 m2, with the remaining space dedicated to gardens and ramps, as the building’s internal design spirals like a snail.
Internally, the reinforced concrete structure forms a curved and descending gallery (exhibition area and auditorium) covered with glass, offering a view of the internal arena, currently used for indigenous ceremonies and presentations. The total built area is approximately 1600 square meters.
The museum features an exhibition space, a restoration laboratory, a digital center named after Mário Juruna for digital inclusion and research, an events space with a capacity for 300 people, an external garden accommodating 1,000 people, and an arena for indigenous rituals.
In 2007, the year Oscar Niemeyer turned one hundred, the Memorial was declared a national heritage site by the Brazilian Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (IPHAN).
The Memorial houses around 380 works, representing various Brazilian indigenous peoples, including artifacts from collections by Berta Gleizer Ribeiro, Darcy Ribeiro, Eduardo Galvão, Orlando Villas-Boas, and other researchers, such as the Urubu-Kaapor feather art, wooden benches from the Yawalapiti, Kuikuro, and Juruna, masks, and musical instruments from the Alto Xingu and Amazon regions.
The Postal Museum
The Postal Museum (Museu Nacional dos Correios) is a postal, telegraphic, and philatelic museum, established on January 15, 1980, and located in Brasília.
The museum’s history dates back to the late 19th century when Dr. Luiz Betim Paes Leme, who led the Diretoria Geral dos Correios from 1882 to 1891, established the Biblioteca Postal (Postal Library) in 1888 and, a year later, the Museu Postal (Postal Museum) in 1889.
The existence of the Museu dos Telégrafos (Telegraph Museum) is known through photographs from the iconographic collection of the Museu Nacional dos Correios, which show two rooms dedicated to preserving and exhibiting telegraphic equipment, fragments of submarine cables, isolators, and other items used for training new telegraph employees.
In 1931, during a major restructuring of postal and telegraphic services in Brazil, the Museu Postal-Telegráfico was created under the Serviço de Comunicações da Diretoria Geral (SCO-DG). In 1980, the Museu Postal e Telegráfico was inaugurated in Brasília, beginning a new chapter in the history of historical collections gathered since the 19th century.
Closed for renovations in 2001 and reopened in 2012 as the Museu Nacional dos Correios, the museum now houses an extensive collection of stamps, documents, manuscripts, books, and equipment.
It has seven floors, with five dedicated to exhibitions, an auditorium for shows and cinema, and a team of multidisciplinary professionals working to catalog, organize, and preserve the diverse collection.
The museum’s mission is to rescue and preserve the history of Correios in Brazil, with a continuously expanding collection of over a million pieces. In addition to its historical exhibits, the Museu Nacional dos Correios hosts inclusive cultural events for students and the general public. Since May 2014, it has been known as the Museu Correios.
Open to visitors from Tuesday to Friday (10 am to 7 pm) and on weekends and holidays (2 pm to 6 pm), the museum aims to engage the public in the fascinating world of postal and telegraphic history and philately through its varied and inclusive programming.
Espaço Lúcio Costa
The Espaço Lúcio Costa is a thematic museum located in Brasília. It was established in 1992 as a tribute to the renowned architect, urban planner, and professor Lúcio Costa (1902-1998). Costa was the winner of the National Competition for the Plano Piloto of Brasília, the visionary project that shaped the city, and was inaugurated in 1960.
Situated beneath the iconic Praça dos Três Poderes and a part of the Centro Cultural Três Poderes (CC3P), the Espaço Lúcio Costa is managed by the Secretaria de Estado de Cultura do Distrito Federal.
The museum welcomes visitors from Tuesday to Sunday, including holidays, between 9 am to 6 pm. The space is thoughtfully designed with wheelchair accessibility and a tactile model for the visually impaired.
Inside the museum, visitors will find the impressive Maquete de Brasília, a meticulously crafted model of the city. Surrounding the model is a gallery showcasing copies of the sketches and the Plano Piloto report presented by Lúcio Costa in 1957 to the international jury.
The exhibition also features historical photographs from the time of Brasília’s construction and inauguration. Lúcio Costa himself conceptualized the exhibition, while the museum’s design, like many other architectural marvels in the city, is the work of Oscar Niemeyer.
The construction of the Espaço Lúcio Costa was made possible by funding from the Fundação Bradesco and was ideated by Oscar Niemeyer in the late 1980s. The museum officially opened its doors on February 27, 1992, to commemorate the 90th birthday of Lúcio Costa.
The museum’s discreet underground location in the Praça dos Três Poderes is intentional, considering the site’s already captivating visual appeal. The permanent exhibition at Espaço Lúcio Costa includes not only the Maquete de Brasília but also a tactile version for visually impaired visitors.
The exhibition also celebrates the two unique buildings Costa designed in the city, the Torre de TV de Brasília and the Rodoviária do Plano Piloto, along with photos from the 1950s and 1960s, capturing the city’s construction and inauguration.